Volume 5 Issue 9 Sept 2018

On the Boeing Front

                    Boeing Making Steady Progress With 777X (Part 1)

Engineers have attached the first fuselage barrels for the first Boeing 777-9s—the static test airframe and the first flight test example—and moved them into systems installation, Boeing reported in late June, and the first pair of wings have emerged from the horizontal build line at the company’s wide body plant in Everett, Washington. 

Scheduled to complete the static test airframe by the end of the year, Boeing has moved the wings for the larger of the two 777X variants into letdown and systems installation, while at the 1.3-million-sq-ft composite wing center(CWC), the company has begun fabricating wings for the fifth airplane. So far, Boeing has sent four sets of wings out of the CWC and into spar assembly.

Boeing has now completed 98 percent of its engineering releases, leaving “very few left to do”, according to a company spokeswoman, who reported the remainder involves mainly systems. In the factory, Boeing has completed the static test rig in Everett, and now is loading it with all its test equipment, while the fatigue test rig has reached the halfway point of construction.

Meanwhile, the airplane’s folding wingtips have arrived from their production site in St. Louis for the static airplane and the first-test article. One of the airplane’s most visually distinguishing characteristics, the 12-foot-long folding wingtip will allow regulators to classify both airplanes as Code E, meaning they will fit the same size parking space the 777-300ER now uses.

The Airbus A380, conversely, operates as a Code F airplane, significantly limiting the number of airports it can use.

See more about this subject in my October report.

Source : ainonline/Boeing/Boeing pictures

 

ON THE AIRBUS FRONT

           Airbus BelugaXL Completes First Flight in Toulouse 

Airbus’s first BelugaXL has completed its first flight, paving the way for a 10-month long test certification campaign and a planned entry into service next year.

The BelugaXL, powered by Rolls-Royce Trent 700 engines, took off from Blagnac in Toulouse, southwest France, where Airbus is based ,on July 19 and landed four hours and 11 min. later, Airbus said.

The aircraft, with its livery designed to look like a smiling beluga whale, the result of a vote by Airbus’s 20,000 employees, is the first of five BelugaXL’s that will enter service in 2019, gradually replacing the existing five BelugaST transporters Airbus uses to carry complete sections of its aircraft from production sites across Europe to final assembly. 

Airbus launched the BelugaXL, in November 2014 to address transport and ramp-up capacity requirements beyond 2019.The new oversize air transporters are based on the A330-200 freighter, with a large re-use of existing components and equipment. It has a payload lifting capacity of four tons greater than the current Beluga A300-600ST.  

Source : Airbus/Airbus Picture         

                                   

REGIONAL/BUSINESS JETS

Transport Canada Certifies 90-Seat Cabin for Bombardier’s Q400 Aircraft

Bombardier Commercial Aircraft announced on August 1 that its 90-passenger Q400 aircraft certification has received its certification from Transport Canada, becoming the first in-production commercial turboprop in the world to reach that capacity.  

Todd Young, head of the Q Series Aircraft Program, said “This milestone certification showcases the unique versatility of the Q400 turboprop and continued commitment to the evolution of the program”. 

The 90-seat configuration represents another step in Bombardier’s continuous improvement of its Q400 aircraft. Other improvements under development    

includes a 2,000 lb- increase in payload capacity and an escalation of the A-Check and C-Check intervals from 600/6000 to 800/8000 flight hours.  

Launch customer for this aircraft is SpiceJet of India.

Source : Bombardier Commercial Aircraft

            

       Rockwell Collins Signs Contracts with AVIC For MA700 

Rockwell Collins has signed master contracts with China’s AVIC Aircraft to supply its Pro Line Fusion avionics suite and air data systems for the MA700 twin-engine turboprop. AVIC Aircraft also has designated the Rockwell Collins HGS 3500 Head-up guidance System as an option.

AVIC Aircraft plans to fly the first MA700, powered by Pratt & Whitney Canada PW150C engines in November 2019 and to obtain certification from the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC) in late 2021.

Pro Line Fusion on the MA700 features four, 14-in. widescreen primary and multifunction flight displays and Multifunction weather radar with predictive windshear capability.

Avionics work will take place at Rockwell Collins facilities in the U.S. and Hyderabad, India as well as at the company’s Rockwell Collins CETC Avionics Co. joint venture in Chengdu, China.

Source : ATW/Picture Rockwell Collins

                                                                 

OTHER AVIATION NEWS

  Canadian North, First Air Will Merge to Serve Canadian Arctic  

Calgary-based Canadian North and Ottawa-based First Air airlines have announced plans to merge—the latest step in the carriers’ efforts to combine air services to best meet the needs of the communities in the Canadian arctic.

The two carriers plan to operate under the Canadian North name with an administrative headquarters in Ottawa. The deal, which requires regulatory approvals is expected to close this year.

The two carriers provide key passenger and cargo connections between communities in Canada’s northern region as well as links to the country’s major metropolitan areas down south.

The two carriers said combining forces ”is the only viable way” to meet air service demands in the Canadian north. A 2017 investigation by Canada’s Competition Bureau concluded that a merger’s benefits would outweigh its drawbacks. 

First Air operates a fleet of 20 aircraft, including 13 ATR 42s, five Boeing 737-400s and two 737-200s, Canadian North has 16 aircraft, including 10 737-300s, three 737-200s, and three de Havilland Twin Otters. 

Source : ATW/Picture Canadian North

 

   Cathay Pacific Announces New Seattle to Hong Kong Direct Service  

Cathay Pacific, one of Asia’s best-known airlines, announced plans to debut nonstop service between Hong Kong and Seattle-Tacoma International Airport in April 2019.

The four-times weekly service will see Seattle-Tacoma become the airline’s eighth passenger gateway in the United States, and its 10th in North America.

Cathay Pacific currently serves Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York(JFK), Newark, San Francisco, Toronto and Vancouver. A new Cathay Pacific service to Washington, DC will commence on the 16th of this month.

Cathay Pacific Chief Executive Officer Rupert Hogg said the Seattle route, which will be operated by the airline’s Airbus A350-900 aircraft, underscores the airlines expansion strategy to connect new destinations not otherwise served from Hong Kong.

CX857 will depart Seattle on Monday, Wednesday, Friday and Sunday mornings at 1:05 a.m., arriving in Hong Kong the following day at 5:25 a.m. This early morning arrival allows passengers to connect with every Cathay Pacific flight across Asia—including, Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur, Jakarta and over 20 gateways in mainland China—without a lengthy layover in Hong Kong. The return flight, CX858, will depart Hong Kong at 11:55 p.m. (local time) on Tuesday, Thursday, Saturday, and Sunday arriving Seattle at 9:00 p.m.(same day).

Source : World Airline News/Cathay Pacific Picture

 

 Iran Air Receives Five ATR 72-600s Before Return of US Sanctions  

European turboprop manufacturer ATR delivered five ATR 72-600 aircraft to Iranian flag carrier Iran Air just before US sanctions came back into force. The carrier has now received 13 out of an order of 20 aircraft, the Toulouse-based manufacturer said.

The aircraft took off from Toulouse on Aug.4, arriving in Tehran’s Mehrabad International Airport after refueling stop for a welcome ceremony that took place Aug.5. 

This is an important decision for ATR,” the manufacturer’s CEO Christian Scherer said. “The next step will consist of working on getting an appropriate authorization from the US administration to ensure a reasonable level of maintenance.”  

The company now faces “challenges” over the remaining aircraft Iran Air ordered for which ATR received a first US license in 2017, before the revocation, Scherer said.

Source : ATW/Picture ATR    

      

LATEST NEWS

  • El Al took delivery of its latest 787-9 featuring a retro livery of the Israeli flag -carrier. El Al adopted the livery on 707s, the carriers first jets, from 1961. 

  • Turkish Airlines has taken delivery in mid-July of the first higher capacity A321neo ACF(Airbus Cabin Flex) that can accommodate up to 240 seats in a single-class layout, in combination with a space-saving aft galley. 
  • Boeing plans to establish 100,000 sqft autonomous aircraft research and development facility at MIT in Cambridge, MA; facility will house engineering teams from Aurora Flight Sciences.
  • Cebu Air has agreed to lease five A320neos from Avolon for delivery starting in 2019.
  • Pobeda Russian airlines wholly owned subsidiary of Aeroflot, has agreed with Boeing for the order of 15 737 MAX8 aircraft, with delivery from autumn of 2019.
  • British Airways announced on July 19th a commitment for three 777-300ER.The airline will take the 777s on an operating lease with a leasing company.
  • Jeju Air becomes first low-cost carrier in Korea to own and operate 737-800. The delivery marks the first of three new 737-800 NGs the airline has on order with Boeing. 

  • Air China has become the first mainland Chinese carrier to take delivery of an Airbus A350, after the airframe secured Chinese validation of the type’s certificate in mid-jury.
  • CDB Aviation Lease Finance will convert its order for eight Boeing 787-9s into one for 22 additional 737 Max 8s.
  • China Airlines has revealed a special carbon fiber livery for its 14th and final A350-900. 

 

AIR CARGO

                Expanding Freight Firms Deliver Big Deals to Boeing

A raft of cargo deals were announced during the Farnborough Air show for a mix of new and converted aircraft. The biggest deal came at the start of the of the show, when DHL Express announced an order for 14 Boeing 777-200LRFs worth $4.7 billion.

The German express shipper expects the first four of the aircraft to be delivered in 2019, and has also taken purchase rights and options on a total of seven more.

Volga-Dnepr placed a firm order for five 747-8F Freighters and a commitment of 29 777-200LRFs. The Russian cargo airline is also in discussion with Boeing about further orders of new and converted 767 freighters and converted 737-800 BCFs.

Qatar Airways finalized an order for five 777-200LRFs, confirming a deal announced as a commitment in April.

Lessor GECAS is to take up to 35 more 737-800 BCFs, building on its current commitment for 15. The deal comprises firm orders for 20 conversions and options on 15 more.

Source : Flightglobal/Boeing 

                   Ethiopian Airlines, DHL Form Logistics Joint Venture

Ethiopian Airlines and DHL have agreed to form a joint-venture company to create what they call the leading cargo logistics provider in Africa. Named DHL-Ethiopian Logistics services, the company will base its operations in Ethiopia and do business throughout A, thereby improving Ethiopia’s logistics infrastructure and connections.

Under the terms of the contract, Ethiopian Airlines takes majority stake in the joint venture and has agreed to provide regulatory and operational support, while DHL establishes air, ocean, and road freight connections between Ethiopia’s main trade hubs and the rest of the world.

The joint venture builds on an extended partnership between Ethiopian and DHL Global Forwarding, which since 2010 has supported the maintenance, repair, and overhaul(MRO) operations of Ethiopian Airlines’ commercial segment, providing logistics services for aircraft parts, engines, and mechanical modules to textiles, utensils, food. and beverages via air and ocean freight between Europe and Asia.

Source: Ain International 

 

 Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul News

                    SR Technics to Expand in Malta 

Having signed a memorandum of understanding (MOU) in May 2017 to expand its aircraft maintenance facility in Malta, SR Technics furthered its plans on Monday August 6 by penning a contract with national economic development agency Malta Enterprise and Malta Industrial Parks which oversees the management of government-owned properties.

The new 322,000 square foot facility located at Malta International Airport will accommodate wide body and narrow body aircraft and will hold greater workshop space which will enable increased capacity for heavy maintenance work, C-checks and cabin modifications or retrofits to up to six narrow body aircraft at a time. The investment will stand at a reported $40.5 million.

Construction is expected to begin this year with four bays scheduled to be completed by November 2019.Initial focus will be on Airbus A320 family and Boeing 737NG aircraft.

Source : SR Technics/Picture SR Technics

 

 

                      LATEST MRO NEWS

  • AJW Group secured a 5-year power-by-the-hour Airbus A320 contract with Cambodia Airways, which is scheduled to begin operations later this year.
  • Turkish Technic was selected by Russia Nordwind Airlines to replace the landing gear on a Boeing 777.
  • Monarch has an Air Transat contract for Airbus A310/A330 line maintenance at Glasgow.
  • EFW(Elbe Flugzeugwerke) delivered its first converted Airbus A330-200P2F to EgyptAir.  EFW says EgyptAir ordered Three A330-200 PSFs.

  • S7 Technics opened a new line maintenance station at Moscow’s Sheremetyevo airport.

 

                      

 

Researched and Compiled by : 

Ed Kaplanian    Commercial Aviation Advisor  

Contact – ekaplanian@msn.com

Editor:   Lee Kaplanian  

Volume 3 Issue 10 The Kaplanian Report


On The Boeing Front

Boeing Major Change in Building the 787 Out of Composite          Could End Jet Lag As we Know it

While engineering of the composite airframe of the 787 has been a challenge, it’s a decision that allowed Boeing to make a major change to its aircraft that could greatly reduce the effect of jet lag on its passengers.

“The 787 Dreamliner has a composite fuselage and that allowed us to pressurize it at whatever altitude we wanted because the material is not susceptible to fatigue”, Blake Emery, Director of Differentiation Strategy for Boeing Commercial Airplanes, told Business Insider in an interview.

Currently, most airliners have cabin air pressure equivalent to that of an altitude of 8,000 feet, Boeing cut that down to 6,000 feet.

“To lower the cabin altitude, we actually increased the air pressure inside the cabin,”

Emery added. “It’s a bit counterintuitive for most people.”

In a study conducted by Oklahoma State University with the help of Boeing, “The research showed passengers’ bodies reacted at 6,000 feet similar to that at sea level,” Emery said. “So we decided to pressurize the Dreamliner at 6,000 feet.”

At 6,000 feet, the cabin air is more dense and has a greater level of oxygen saturation. As a result the body does not have to work as hard to oxygenate blood and sustain itself.

According to Emery, since there isn’t a perfect one-to-one correlation between altitude and jet lag, Boeing has taken the additional measures to mitigate the symptoms. These measures include an increase in cabin humidity as well as a new air-filtration system.

The 787 will not be the only Boeing jet to have a lower cabin altitude. The upcoming 777X mini-jumbo jet will also be pressurized at 6,000 feet, although it is primarily made of aluminum.

“Aluminum aircraft can be pressurized to 6,000 feet,” Kent Craver, Boeing Commercial Airplane regional director of passenger satisfaction, told Business Insider in an interview. ”In fact, most business jets are already pressurized to that level.”

Source : Business Insider/Boeing

                      

ON THE AIRBUS FRONT

Airbus Unveils New Livery on Second A350-1000 Test Aircraft 

The second Airbus A350-1000 flight test aircraft – the first to be equipped with full passenger cabin – was displayed September 23rd in a new carbon fiber-themed livery outside the manufacturer’s paint shop in Toulouse, France.

According to Airbus, the livery is inspired by the advanced composites technology incorporated in over 50% of the A350 XWB airframe.

As part of the aircraft’s certification campaign, Airbus will perform cabin and air systems tests on the test -1000 version. Early long flights and route proving evaluations will get underway in 2017, Airbus said.

The A350-1000 has the longest fuselage (243 feet) of Airbus’ A350 XWB family and seats 366 passengers. (This aircraft will compete with the 777-9X, which is 250 feet long and will carry 400 passengers).

As of August 30th, 195 A350-1000 aircraft are on order; customers include Gaudeloupe-based Air Caraibes, (three on order),Los Angeles-based Air Lease Corp., (nine on order), South Korea-based Asiana Airlines (10), British Airways (18), Japan Airlines (13), Hong Kong-based Cathay Pacific Air (26), Abu Dhabi-based Etihad Airways(22), Chile-based LATAM Airline Group (14),launch customer Qatar Airways(37), Chicago-based United Airlines (35) and UK-based Virgin Atlantic (eight).

Source : ATW/Airbus/Ed’s comments on passenger count and length.

    

    REGIONAL/BUSINESS JETS

Cebu Pacific Takes First High Capacity ATR 72-600

Philippine low-cost carrier, (LCC) Cebu Pacific Air, has taken delivery of the first ATR 72-600 High Capacity aircraft.

Configured with 78 seats, this new ATR 72 option has 10 additional seats compared to the standard 68-seat configuration of the aircraft.

Cebu Pacific will progressively replace its current fleet of eight 72-seat ATR 72-500s with a fleet of 16 new 78-seat ATR 72-600s.

In June 2015,the LCC ordered 16 ATR 72-600 plus 10 options, which will be operated by Cebgo, it’s wholly owned subsidiary. Deliveries will run until 2020.

Source : ATW

Dassault Falcon 8X Makes its Debut

Dassault Falcon 8X Makes its Debut at the Latin American Business Aviation Convention and Exhibition (LABACE) in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Falcon 8X makes its debut at (LABACE) as it seeks to drum up sales for the long-range tri-jet ahead of its validation by Brazilian certification authority in the fourth quarter of this year.

Dassault Falcon president and chief executive John Rosanvallon says the Latin American country “has shown strong demand” for the 8X since the program’s launch in 2014. ”Four of the first 20 aircraft are scheduled to be delivered there,” he says. “That’s a great sign of a Brazilian market that might be turning the corner for the better.”

The Falcon 8X secured US and European certification in early July, and first deliveries have already started.

In preparation for the 6,450nm (11,900km)-range 8X’s entry into service, Dassault has begun ramping up production at its Bordeaux Merignac final assembly plant in southwest France.

As of this writing, serial number 29 is now being manufactured at the facility, and 15 aircraft are being outfitted at Dassault’s US completion center in Little Rock, Arkansas.

Source : Flightglobal/Dassault

                   

                      OTHER AVIATION NEWS

After 37 Years, Cathay Pacific Calls Time on the 747

Cathay Pacific is retiring its Boeing 747 passenger fleet after 37 years. Once a ubiquitous presence at major airports around the world, the aircraft approaching this age has now become a rare sight.

For aviation geeks gathered at the Hong Kong International Airport, soon they will only be able to spot the Hong Kong flag carrier’s passenger jet in a history book. The final 747 flight to Tokyo took off on the first of this month.

The original 747 was vital to Cathay’s development into a major global carrier. The airline received its first jumbo jet in 1979 when it was still a small regional carrier flying to a handful of Asian destinations and Australia. It only truly became global in 1980, when it started flying to London’s Gatwick with the second 747 aircraft in its fleet.

After October 1st, Cathay will continue to fly the jets in its cargo fleet, but it decided earlier not to adopt the new generation 747-8 for passengers.

But for Hong Kong plane spotters, it is hard to say goodbye to the Queen of the Skies. The association of Hong Kong Aviation Photographers said it is putting together a photo book to commemorate the occasion. Its member, Daryl Chapman, took an iconic photo of a Cathay 747 attempting to land at Hong Kong’s old Kai Tak Airport.

Source : Ed’s Research/China Aviation Daily

Las Vegas Lands First-Ever Airline Route to Mainland China

Hainan Airlines will begin flying from Las Vegas on December 2nd, launching three weekly flights to Beijing on Boeing 787 Dreamliners. The carrier announced its intention to operate the flights earlier this year, but received the needed regulatory approval in Mid September.

Hainan Beijing flights will give Las Vegas’ McCarran International Airport its first-ever regularly scheduled nonstop route to mainland China.  It is a destination that accounts for one of the fastest-growing segment of visitors to Las Vegas, according to Las Vegas Review- Journal. The associated Press continues that theme, writing the new flights come as Las Vegas and Asian investors ”are going all in on Chinese tourism, as some of Las Vegas’ latest developments on an and off the strip target Chinese nationals and Chinese-Americans.”

The Beijing service becomes Las Vegas’ second regularly scheduled route to Asia. Korean Air also flies from Las Vegas to Seoul. For Hainan Air, Las Vegas continues a recent growth spurt for the carrier in the United States. The airline also has launched new routes from cities like Boston, Seattle and San Jose, California, the past few years.

Source : China Aviation Daily

Rockwell Collins was Selected By Boeing                                              for the 777x Touchscreens

Rockwell Collins will supply touchscreen flight displays for the Boeing 777X cockpit, ushering the technology into scheduled commercial aviation when the 777-9 enters service in 2020.

Boeing announced in July that the re-engines and re-winged 777x family would be the first airliner to feature touchscreen displays for the pilots.

The move follows the introduction of touchscreen displays in general aviation and business jet cockpits, including in Gulfstream’s new G500 and G600 aircraft.

The 777x cockpit will share a similar lay-out to the 787 family with five displays, but the former will include multi-touch format screens, allowing both pilots to touch the same screen simultaneously.

Source : Boeing/Rockwell Collins/Flightglobal

Egypt Air Agrees to Buy Eight Boeing 737 NGs

Cairo-based Egyptair has inked a deal to purchase eight new Boeing 737NGs, with the first delivery expected in February 2017, according to Egyptair statement.  The aircraft will be financed by Dubai Aerospace Enterprise.

Egyptair Chairman and CEO Safwat Musallam said, “the deal will provide us the competitive edge to achieve our growth targets and help us strengthen our presence in a wider region”.

Egyptair currently operates 20 Boeing Next Generation 737s and the 8 new aircraft will comprise the largest single-aisle aircraft type in its fleet.  The airline also has six 777-300ERs and two 777-200ERs.

Source : ATW

LATEST NEWS

  • Jeju Air, South Korean budget carrier, has announced its intention to order three new 737-800s, in a deal which it says is worth $287 million.
  • Jet2, the UK leisure carrier, receives first of the 30 Boeing 737-800s. The aircraft were ordered in two batches, comprising an order for 27 737-800s that was finalized in September 2015 and further three were ordered in December 2015.

  • El Al the Israeli flag carrier has agreed to take another Boeing 787-9 from an undisclosed lessor; taking to 16 the number of Dreamliners it plans to operate starting next year.
  • China Airlines has taken delivery of its first A350-900 XWB, becoming the 9th airline to operate the type.
  • Sichuan Airlines has signed an agreement to lease three A350-900s from AerCap and one from Air Lease Corp.
  • Boeing is set to roll the 500th 787 Dreamliner. The 500th 787-9 Dreamliner has begun final assembly on September 26th, which is scheduled to be delivered to Air France on November 28, 2016.
  • LATAM  receives first A350-900 XWB under AerCap leaseback arrangement.
  • Monarch Airlines is set to buy 15 new Boeing 737s after a major investment from shareholders.  The extra 15 aircraft, added to the 30 it already ordered in 2014, would put the airline on a secure footing for the foreseeable future.
  • The Commercial Aircraft Corp of China (COMAC) delivered the second ARJ21-700 to Chengdu Airlines.

  • Xiamen Airlines launched its service from Shenzhen to Seattle on September 26th. The service will be operated with Boeing 787 Dreamliner, with three flights per week, on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays.

 

AIR CARGO

     Cargolux Takes Early Delivery of its Final 747-8F

It was not really an earth-shaking surprise, given the Luxembourg-based carrier has already taken delivery of thirteen of the type. But this one, number 14, is the last Cargolux had on order, and was delivered ahead of schedule.

Cargolux, for its part, had originally intended to take delivery of the aircraft in 2017, but in August of this year, made a decision to bring forward the delivery date. Cargo traffic has picked up recently, reassuring the carrier that now would be sensible time to add an additional aircraft to its permanent fleet.

Shedding a bit of light on recent traffic developments in North America, Pier Curci, Cargolux’s VP the Americas, noted strong transpacific demand – especially from the Hong Kong gateway.

Returning from the delivery, the evening of September 30th when LX-VCN took off from Seattle, it immediately entered revenue service. During its return to Luxembourg, Cargolux spared no time testing the features of its shiny new 747-8F. It was widely circulated that the aircraft would carry an aircraft engine on its maiden voyage.

Source : Cargofacts/Boeing Picture

  

                                MILITARY NEWS             

      Boeing Unveils Contender for Northrop T-38 Replacement

Boeing and Saab finally took the wraps off a purposefully designed jet trainer on September 13th to replace initially  the US Air Force’s fleet of more than 400 Northrop T-38s.

Showing off a design featuring twin, canted tails and a shoulder-mounted anhedral wing, the Boeing/Saab team will compete with a high-powered trainer with a 17,700-thrust GE Aviation F404-GE-402 with full afterburner.

“The team’s clean sheet design resembles Saab’s compact Gripen fighter and twin tails allow for more maneuverability at high angle of attack”, Darryl Davis, president of Boeing Phantom Works Defense, told reporters. In its most recent draft request for proposals, the US Air Force called for 25 degree of high angle of attack.

“Typically, you grow tails extremely large for high angle of attack maneuverability and we chose to take a different path,” he says. ”Size relates to cost. The smaller and more compact, the more requirements you’re going to meet and the more affordable is.”

While Boeing focused on meeting the USAF’S requirements to keep costs down, their T_X offering allows for future growth potential, Davis says. That growth plan included the afterburner, which was not a USAF requirement, he says.

Source : Flightglobal/Boeing picture

 

                         

Researched and Compiled by : Ed Kaplanian

Commercial Aviation Advisor

Contact – ed@kaplanianreport.com